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What is Cancer ?

"Cancer is a group of more than 100 different diseases. It can develop almost anywhere in the body."

Cancer is a disease that starts in the cells of our bodies. The body is made up of millions of cells, grouped together to form tissues and organs. Cell gets orders from the genes inside them to grow, work, reproduce and die. Normally, our cells obey these orders and we remain healthy. But sometimes malfunctions occur in these orders resulting in cells to form tumors, or spread through the system to other parts of the body.Tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumor cells stay in one place in the body and are not usually life-threatening.

Malignant tumor cells invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The first sign that a malignant tumor has spread is often swelling of nearby lymph nodes, but cancer can spread to almost any part of the body. Cancers are named after the part of the body where they start.

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Sign & Symptoms of Cancer

Signs and symptoms are both signals of injury, illness, disease – signals that something is not right in the body.

A sign is a signal that can be seen by someone else – maybe a loved one, or a doctor, nurse, or other health care professional. For example, fever, fast breathing, and abnormal lung sounds heard through a stethoscope may be signs of pneumonia.

A symptom is a signal that’s felt or noticed by the person who has it, but may not be easily seen by anyone else. For example, weakness, aching, and feeling short of breath may be symptoms of pneumonia.

Having one sign or symptom may not be enough to figure out what’s causing it. For example, a rash in a child could be a sign of a number of things, such as poison ivy, measles, a skin infection, or a food allergy. But if the child has the rash along with other signs and symptoms like a high fever, chills, achiness, and a sore throat, then a doctor can get a better picture of the illness. Sometimes, a patient’s signs and symptoms still don’t give the doctor enough clues to be sure what’s causing the illness. Then medical tests, such as x-rays, blood tests, or a biopsy may be needed.

Causes of Cancer

Like symptoms, there is no strong evidence for its causes. However, after a lot of research, scientists have discovered some factors that increase the disease. Some common factors are :

  • Consuming substances like tobacco.
  • Alcohol consumption day night
  • Diet and lifestyle
  • Stay in touch with some chemicals for a long time.
  • Infection
  • Unhealthy environment
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Treatments of Cancer

There are many treatments for cancer and some cancers can be cured, especially if they are treated in a timely manner, such as breast cancer.

  • Chemotherapy: Medicines that eliminate cancerous cells.
  • Radiation Therapy: There are various types of rays used to eliminate cancerous cells such as X-rays, electron beams and protons.
  • Surgery: On the basis of the condition of the patient and the type of cancer, the cancerous tumor or malignant tumor affected by cancer is expelled by the operation to work on the effect of cancer or to completely cure it.
  • Hormone therapy: It is targeted at a hormone that allows cancer to spread. This is done by tablets, injections or surgery. Hormone therapy is used for prostate and breast cancer.